Multiple Views Using SDI

There are many advantages to using a CView derived class over a dialog based
application. Many times however there is more information than screen space or the program just needs logical seperation of elements. MDI ( Multiple Document Interface) is the standard method of achiving this but many designers do not care for it. It tends to get messy
quickly. Most of the time what is needed is a generalized easy way to have a
SDI ( Single Document Interface) framework and the ability to switch the active
view when needed. This article describes such a method.

In order for this method to work correctly you need to make one simple change
in the header of your CView derived classes. The default constructor for the
view needs to be have the protected storage class changed to public ( See code
sample below). This is due to the fact that we will be constructing the view on
the fly when it is switched to the active view. We could create all the views
at one time and have them available but that is wasteful of memory and
resources and is not really needed. If you wish to do so, however the code can
easily be changed to achive this.

class CMainView : public CFormView
{
protected: // create from serialization only Change this to
public: // create from serialization only this in all CView derived classes

CMainView();
DECLARE_DYNCREATE(CMainView)


The actual function that will swap the views is located in your CFrame derived
class. This is the logical place to put it because in the SDI architecture the
frame class controls the view class. It also allows us to centralize message
handling for switching views in/out. As far as MFC member functions go it is
pretty simple. It simply disconnects the old view and destroys it , creates a
new CView derived class and attaches the document to it, sets a few flags,
shows the view and we are in business. here it is.

void CMainFrame::SwitchToForm(int nForm)
{
CView* pOldActiveView = GetActiveView(); // save old view
CView* pNewActiveView = (CView*)GetDlgItem(nForm); // get new view

if (pNewActiveView == NULL)
{
switch(nForm) // these IDs are the dialog IDs of the view but can use anything
{
case IDD_MULTISCREEN_FORM:
pNewActiveView = (CView*)new CMainView;
break;

case IDD_MULTISCREEN_FORM2:
pNewActiveView = (CView*)new CView2;
break;

case IDD_MULTISCREEN_FORM3:
pNewActiveView = (CView*)new CView3;
break;

case IDD_MULTISCREEN_FORM4:
pNewActiveView = (CView*)new CView4;
break;
}

CCreateContext context; // attach the document to the new view
context.m_pCurrentDoc = pOldActiveView->GetDocument();
pNewActiveView->Create(NULL, NULL, 0L, CFrameWnd::rectDefault, // and the frame
this, nForm, &context);
pNewActiveView->OnInitialUpdate();
}

SetActiveView(pNewActiveView); // change the active view
pNewActiveView->ShowWindow(SW_SHOW); // show the new window
pOldActiveView->ShowWindow(SW_HIDE); // hide the old

::SetWindowWord(pNewActiveView->m_hWnd, GWL_ID, AFX_IDW_PANE_FIRST); // gotta have it
RecalcLayout(); // adjust frame
delete pOldActiveView; // kill old view
}


Now all we need to do is attach some menu options and handle the users requests
to switch views. This is easily done using Class wizard to create the blank
functions and message handlers. Below is the code demonstrating a call to
switch screens.


void CMainFrame::OnForm1()
{
SwitchToForm(IDD_MULTISCREEN_FORM);
}


Also as a UI issue it would be nice if the menu option gave a clue as to what
screen we were on and to prevent the user from attempting to switch to the
current screen. This is easily accomplished by the code below.


void CMainFrame::OnUpdateForm1(CCmdUI* pCmdUI)
{
pCmdUI->Enable(GetActiveView()->GetRuntimeClass()!=RUNTIME_CLASS(CMainView));
}



I have a small demo project that shows illustrates the principals talked about in this article. It shows a SDI with 4 screens and allows one to switch views via a popup menu or a frame menu.

Download demo project – 26 KB

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