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This chapter introduces the important and yet non-traditional “patterns” approach to program design.
Probably the most important step forward in object-oriented design is the “design patterns” movement, chronicled in Design Patterns , by Gamma, Helm, Johnson & Vlissides (Addison-Wesley 1995).  That book shows 23 different solutions to particular classes of problems. In this chapter, the basic concepts of design patterns will be introduced along with several examples. This should whet your appetite to read Design Patterns (a source of what has now become an essential, almost mandatory, vocabulary for OOP programmers).
The latter part of this chapter contains an example of the design evolution process, starting with an initial solution and moving through the logic and process of evolving the solution to more appropriate designs. The program shown (a trash sorting simulation) has evolved over time, and you can look at that evolution as a prototype for the way your own design can start as an adequate solution to a particular problem and evolve into a flexible approach to a class of problems.
 But be warned: the examples are in C++.