Application Security Testing: An Integral Part of DevOps
|Bruce Eckel's Thinking in Java||Contents | Prev | Next|
Aristotle was probably the first to begin a careful study of the concept of type. He was known to speak of “the class of fishes and the class of birds.” The concept that all objects, while being unique, are also part of a set of objects that have characteristics and behaviors in common was directly used in the first object-oriented language, Simula-67, with its fundamental keyword class that introduces a new type into a program (thus class and type are often used synonymously ).
Simula, as its name implies, was created for developing simulations such as the classic “bank teller problem.” In this, you have a bunch of tellers, customers, accounts, transactions, etc. The members (elements) of each class share some commonality: every account has a balance, every teller can accept a deposit, etc. At the same time, each member has its own state; each account has a different balance, each teller has a name. Thus the tellers, customers, accounts, transactions, etc. can each be represented with a unique entity in the computer program. This entity is the object, and each object belongs to a particular class that defines its characteristics and behaviors.
So, although what we really do in object-oriented programming is create new data types, virtually all object-oriented programming languages use the “class” keyword. When you see the word “type” think “class” and vice versa.
Once a type is established, you can make as many objects of that type as you like, and then manipulate those objects as the elements that exist in the problem you are trying to solve. Indeed, one of the challenges of object-oriented programming is to create a one-to-one mapping between the elements in the problem space (the place where the problem actually exists) and the solution space (the place where you’re modeling that problem, such as a computer).
But how do you get an object to do useful work for you? There must be a way to make a request of that object so it will do something, such as complete a transaction, draw something on the screen or turn on a switch. And each object can satisfy only certain requests. The requests you can make of an object are defined by its interface, and the type is what determines the interface. The idea of type being equivalent to interface is fundamental in object-oriented programming.
A simple example might be a representation of a light bulb:
Light lt = new Light(); lt.on();
The name of the type/class is Light, and the requests that you can make of a Light object are to turn it on, turn it off, make it brighter or make it dimmer. You create a “handle” for a Light simply by declaring a name ( lt) for that identifier, and you make an object of type Light with the new keyword, assigning it to the handle with the = sign. To send a message to the object, you state the handle name and connect it to the message name with a period (dot). From the standpoint of the user of a pre-defined class, that’s pretty much all there is to programming with objects.
 Some people make a distinction, stating that type determines the interface while class is a particular implementation of that interface.