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 MicroBenchmark running on Pentium Pro (200Mh), Netscape 3.0, JDK 1.1.4 (see reference  below).
 Sun’s Java document page on the JDK Java interpreter http://java.sun.com/products/JDK/tools/win32/java.html
 Vladimir Bulatov’s HyperProf http://www.physics.orst.edu/~bulatov/HyperProf
 The premiere online references for optimizing Java code are Jonathan Hardwick’s Java Optimization site at http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~jch/java/optimization.html, “Tools for Optimizing Java” at http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~jch/java/tools.html, and “Java Microbenchmarks” (with a quick 45 second measurement benchmark) at http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~jch/java/benchmarks.html.
 Make Java fast: Optimize! How to get the greatest performance out of your code through low-level optimizations in Java by Doug Bell http://www.javaworld.com/javaworld/jw-04-1997/jw-04-optimize.html, complete with an extensive annotated measurement Benchmark applet.
 Java Optimization Resources http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~jch/java/resources.html
 Optimizing Java for Speed http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~jch/java/speed.html
 An Empirical Study of FORTRAN Programs by Donald Knuth, 1971, Software – Practice and Experience, Volume 1 p. 105-33.
 Building High-Performance Applications and Servers in Java: An Experiential Study , by Jimmy Nguyen, Michael Fraenkel, Richard Redpath, Binh Q. Nguyen, and Sandeep K. Singhal; IBM Software Solutions, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center. http://www.ibm.com/java/education/javahipr.html.
Java specific books
 Advanced Java, Idioms, Pitfalls, Styles, and Programming Tips , by Chris Laffra, Prentice Hall, 1997. (Java 1.0) Chapter Sections 11-20.
 Data Structures and C Programs by Christopher J. Van Wyk, Addison-Wesley, 1988.
 Writing Efficient Programs by Jon Bentley, Prentice Hall, 1982, especially p. 110 and p. 145-151.
 More Programming Pearls by Jon Bentley. Association for Computing Machinery, February 1988.
 Programming Pearls by Jon Bentley, Addison-Wesley 1989. Part II addresses generic performance enhancements.
 Code Complete: A Practical Handbook of Software Construction by Steve McConnell, Microsoft Press 1993, Chapter 9.
 Object-Oriented System Development by Champeaux, Lea, and Faure, Chapter 25.
 The Art of Programming by Donald Knuth, Volume 1 Fundamental Algorithms 3rd Edition, 1997; Volume 2, Seminumerical Algorithms 3 rd Edition; Volume 3 Sorting and Searching 2 nd Edition, Addison-Wesley. The definitive encyclopedia of algorithms.
 Algorithms in C: Fundamentals, Data Structures, Sorting, Searching by Robert Sedgewick, 3 rd Edition, Addison-Wesley 1997. The author is an apprentice of Knuth’s. This is one of seven editions devoted to several languages and contains timely, somewhat simpler treatments of algorithms.