The observer pattern

Bruce Eckel's Thinking in Java Contents | Prev | Next

//: BoxObserver.java
// Demonstration of Observer pattern using
// Java's built-in observer classes.
import java.awt.*;
import java.awt.event.*;
import java.util.*;
 
// You must inherit a new type of Observable:
class BoxObservable extends Observable {
  public void notifyObservers(Object b) {
    // Otherwise it won't propagate changes:
    setChanged();
    super.notifyObservers(b);
  }
}
 
public class BoxObserver extends Frame {
  Observable notifier = new BoxObservable();
  public BoxObserver(int grid) {
    setTitle("Demonstrates Observer pattern");
    setLayout(new GridLayout(grid, grid));
    for(int x = 0; x < grid; x++)
      for(int y = 0; y < grid; y++)
        add(new OCBox(x, y, notifier));
  }   
  public static void main(String[] args) {
    int grid = 8;
    if(args.length > 0)
      grid = Integer.parseInt(args[0]);
    Frame f = new BoxObserver(grid);
    f.setSize(500, 400);
    f.setVisible(true);
    f.addWindowListener(
      new WindowAdapter() {
        public void windowClosing(WindowEvent e) {
          System.exit(0);
        }
      });
  }
}
 
class OCBox extends Canvas implements Observer {
  Observable notifier;
  int x, y; // Locations in grid
  Color cColor = newColor();
  static final Color[] colors = { 
    Color.black, Color.blue, Color.cyan, 
    Color.darkGray, Color.gray, Color.green,
    Color.lightGray, Color.magenta, 
    Color.orange, Color.pink, Color.red, 
    Color.white, Color.yellow 
  };
  static final Color newColor() {
    return colors[
      (int)(Math.random() * colors.length)
    ];
  }
  OCBox(int x, int y, Observable notifier) {
    this.x = x;
    this.y = y;
    notifier.addObserver(this);
    this.notifier = notifier;
    addMouseListener(new ML());
  }
  public void paint(Graphics  g) {
    g.setColor(cColor);
    Dimension s = getSize();
    g.fillRect(0, 0, s.width, s.height);
  }
  class ML extends MouseAdapter {
    public void mousePressed(MouseEvent e) {
      notifier.notifyObservers(OCBox.this);
    }
  }
  public void update(Observable o, Object arg) {
    OCBox clicked = (OCBox)arg;
    if(nextTo(clicked)) {
      cColor = clicked.cColor;
      repaint();
    }
  }
  private final boolean nextTo(OCBox b) {
    return Math.abs(x - b.x) <= 1 && 
           Math.abs(y - b.y) <= 1;
  }
} ///:~ 

When you first look at the online documentation for Observable, it’s a bit confusing because it appears that you can use an ordinary Observable object to manage the updates. But this doesn’t work; try it – inside BoxObserver, create an Observable object instead of a BoxObservable object and see what happens: nothing. To get an effect, you must inherit from Observable and somewhere in your derived-class code call setChanged( ). This is the method that sets the “changed” flag, which means that when you call notifyObservers( ) all of the observers will, in fact, get notified. In the example above setChanged( ) is simply called within notifyObservers( ), but you could use any criterion you want to decide when to call setChanged( ).



Comments

  • There are no comments yet. Be the first to comment!

Leave a Comment
  • Your email address will not be published. All fields are required.

Top White Papers and Webcasts

  • Live Event Date: January 28, 2015 @ 11:00 a.m. ET / 8:00 a.m. PT Check out this upcoming live webcast and join Jeff Sloyer, IBM Developer Evangelist and Master Inventor, for a tutorial for building cloud-based applications. Using IBM's platform as a service, Bluemix, Jeff will show you how to architect and assemble cloud-based applications built for cloud scale. Leveraging the power of microservices, developers can quickly translate monolithic applications to a cloud-based microarchitecture. This hour-long …

  • Today's agile organizations pose operations teams with a tremendous challenge: to deploy new releases to production immediately after development and testing is completed. To ensure that applications are deployed successfully, an automatic and transparent process is required. We refer to this process as Zero Touch Deployment™. This white paper reviews two approaches to Zero Touch Deployment--a script-based solution and a release automation platform. The article discusses how each can solve the key …

Most Popular Programming Stories

More for Developers

RSS Feeds

Thanks for your registration, follow us on our social networks to keep up-to-date