Analysis and Design

Bruce Eckel's Thinking in Java Contents | Prev | Next

Books on OOP analysis and design are coming out of the woodwork. Most of these books are filled with lots of long words, awkward prose and important-sounding pronouncements. [9] I come away thinking the book would be better as a chapter or at the most a very short book and feeling annoyed that this process couldn’t be described simply and directly. (It disturbs me that people who purport to specialize in managing complexity have such trouble writing clear and simple books.) After all, the whole point of OOP is to make the process of software development easier, and although it would seem to threaten the livelihood of those of us who consult because things are complex, why not make it simple? So, hoping I’ve built a healthy skepticism within you, I shall endeavor to give you my own perspective on analysis and design in as few paragraphs as possible.

Staying on course

  1. What are the objects? (How do you partition your project into its component parts?)
  2. What are their interfaces? (What messages do you need to be able to send to each object?)
If you come up with nothing more than the objects and their interfaces then you can write a program. For various reasons you might need more descriptions and documents than this, but you can’t really get away with any less.

Phase 0: Let’s make a plan

Phase 1: What are we making?

In the previous generation of program design (procedural design), this would be called “creating the requirements analysis and system specification .” These, of course, were places to get lost: intimidatingly-named documents that could become big projects in their own right. Their intention was good, however. The requirements analysis says “Make a list of the guidelines we will use to know when the job is done and the customer is satisfied.” The system specification says “Here’s a description of what the program will do (not how) to satisfy the requirements.” The requirements analysis is really a contract between you and the customer (even if the customer works within your company or is some other object or system). The system specification is a top-level exploration into the problem and in some sense a discovery of whether it can be done and how long it will take. Since both of these will require consensus among people, I think it’s best to keep them as bare as possible – ideally, to lists and basic diagrams – to save time. You might have other constraints that require you to expand them into bigger documents.

Although it’s a black art, at this point some kind of scheduling can be quite useful. You now have an overview of what you’re building so you’ll probably be able to get some idea of how long it will take. A lot of factors come into play here: if you estimate a long schedule then the company might not decide to build it, or a manager might have already decided how long the project should take and will try to influence your estimate. But it’s best to have an honest schedule from the beginning and deal with the tough decisions early. There have been a lot of attempts to come up with accurate scheduling techniques (like techniques to predict the stock market), but probably the best approach is to rely on your experience and intuition. Get a gut feeling for how long it will really take, then double that and add 10 percent. Your gut feeling is probably correct; you can get something working in that time. The “doubling” will turn that into something decent, and the 10 percent will deal with final polishing and details. However you want to explain it, and regardless of the moans and manipulations that happen when you reveal such a schedule, it just seems to work out that way.

Phase 2: How will we build it?

The most successful consulting experiences I’ve had when coming up with an initial design involves standing in front of a team, who hadn’t built an OOP project before, and drawing objects on a whiteboard. We talked about how the objects should communicate with each other, and erased some of them and replaced them with other objects. The team (who knew what the project was supposed to do) actually created the design; they “owned” the design rather than having it given to them. All I was doing was guiding the process by asking the right questions, trying out the assumptions and taking the feedback from the team to modify those assumptions. The true beauty of the process was that the team learned how to do object-oriented design not by reviewing abstract examples, but by working on the one design that was most interesting to them at that moment: theirs.

Phase 3: Let’s build it!

If you’re reading this book you’re probably a programmer, so now we’re at the part you’ve been trying to get to. By following a plan – no matter how simple and brief – and coming up with design structure before coding, you’ll discover that things fall together far more easily than if you dive in and start hacking, and this provides a great deal of satisfaction. Getting code to run and do what you want is fulfilling, even like some kind of drug if you look at the obsessive behavior of some programmers. But it’s my experience that coming up with an elegant solution is deeply satisfying at an entirely different level; it feels closer to art than technology. And elegance always pays off; it’s not a frivolous pursuit. Not only does it give you a program that’s easier to build and debug, but it’s also easier to understand and maintain, and that’s where the financial value lies.

Phase 4: Iteration

This is the point in the development cycle that has traditionally been called “maintenance,” a catch-all term that can mean everything from “getting it to work the way it was really supposed to in the first place” to “adding features that the customer forgot to mention before” to the more traditional “fixing the bugs that show up” and “adding new features as the need arises.” So many misconceptions have been applied to the term “maintenance” that it has taken on a slightly deceiving quality, partly because it suggests that you’ve actually built a pristine program and that all you need to do is change parts, oil it and keep it from rusting. Perhaps there’s a better term to describe what’s going on.

What it means to “get it right” isn’t just that the program works according to the requirements and the use-cases. It also means that the internal structure of the code makes sense to you, and feels like it fits together well, with no awkward syntax, oversized objects or ungainly exposed bits of code. In addition, you must have some sense that the program structure will survive the changes that it will inevitably go through during its lifetime, and that those changes can be made easily and cleanly. This is no small feat. You must not only understand what you’re building, but also how the program will evolve (what I call the vector of change ). Fortunately, object-oriented programming languages are particularly adept at supporting this kind of continuing modification – the boundaries created by the objects are what tend to keep the structure from breaking down. They are also what allow you to make changes that would seem drastic in a procedural program without causing earthquakes throughout your code. In fact, support for iteration might be the most important benefit of OOP.

Iteration also occurs when you build a system, see that it matches your requirements and then discover it wasn’t actually what you wanted. When you see the system, you realize you want to solve a different problem. If you think this kind of iteration is going to happen, then you owe it to yourself to build your first version as quickly as possible so you can find out if it’s what you want.

Iteration is closely tied to incremental development . Incremental development means that you start with the core of your system and implement it as a framework upon which to build the rest of the system piece by piece. Then you start adding features one at a time. The trick to this is in designing a framework that will accommodate all the features you plan to add to it. (See Chapter 16 for more insight into this issue.) The advantage is that once you get the core framework working, each feature you add is like a small project in itself rather than part of a big project. Also, new features that are incorporated later in the development or maintenance phases can be added more easily. OOP supports incremental development because if your program is designed well, your increments will turn out to be discreet objects or groups of objects.

Plans pay off

Of course you wouldn’t build a house without a lot of carefully-drawn plans. If you build a deck or a dog house, your plans won’t be so elaborate but you’ll still probably start with some kind of sketches to guide you on your way. Software development has gone to extremes. For a long time, people didn’t have much structure in their development, but then big projects began failing. In reaction, we ended up with methodologies that had an intimidating amount of structure and detail. These were too scary to use – it looked like you’d spend all your time writing documents and no time programming. (This was often the case.) I hope that what I’ve shown you here suggests a middle path – a sliding scale. Use an approach that fits your needs (and your personality). No matter how minimal you choose to make it, some kind of plan will make a big improvement in your project as opposed to no plan at all. Remember that, by some estimates, over 50 percent of projects fail.

[9] The best introduction is still Grady Booch’s Object-Oriented Design with Applications , 2 nd edition, Wiley & Sons 1996. His insights are clear and his prose is straightforward, although his notations are needlessly complex for most designs. (You can easily get by with a subset.)

[10] This is something like “rapid prototyping,” where you were supposed to build a quick-and-dirty version so that you could learn about the system, and then throw away your prototype and build it right. The trouble with rapid prototyping is that people didn’t throw away the prototype, but instead built upon it. Combined with the lack of structure in procedural programming, this often leads to messy systems that are expensive to maintain.


  • There are no comments yet. Be the first to comment!

Leave a Comment
  • Your email address will not be published. All fields are required.

Top White Papers and Webcasts

  • Live Event Date: October 29, 2014 @ 11:00 a.m. ET / 8:00 a.m. PT Are you interested in building a cognitive application using the power of IBM Watson? Need a platform that provides speed and ease for rapidly deploying this application? Join Chris Madison, Watson Solution Architect, as he walks through the process of building a Watson powered application on IBM Bluemix. Chris will talk about the new Watson Services just released on IBM bluemix, but more importantly he will do a step by step cognitive …

  • Live Event Date: November 13, 2014 @ 2:00 p.m. ET / 11:00 a.m. PT APIs can be a great source of competitive advantage. The practice of exposing backend services as APIs has become pervasive, however their use varies widely across companies and industries. Some companies leverage APIs to create internal, operational and development efficiencies, while others use them to drive ancillary revenue channels. Many companies successfully support both public and private programs from the same API by varying levels …

Most Popular Programming Stories

More for Developers

Latest Developer Headlines

RSS Feeds