Interchangeable objects with polymorphism

Bruce Eckel's Thinking in Java Contents | Prev | Next

with polymorphism

Inheritance usually ends up creating a family of classes, all based on the same uniform interface. We express this with an inverted tree diagram: [5]

One of the most important things you do with such a family of classes is to treat an object of a derived class as an object of the base class. This is important because it means you can write a single piece of code that ignores the specific details of type and talks just to the base class. That code is then decoupled from type-specific information, and thus is simpler to write and easier to understand. And, if a new type – a Triangle, for example – is added through inheritance, the code you write will work just as well for the new type of Shape as it did on the existing types. Thus the program is extensible.

Consider the above example. If you write a function in Java:

void doStuff(Shape s) {
  s.erase();
  // ...
  s.draw();
}

This function speaks to any Shape, so it is independent of the specific type of object it’s drawing and erasing. If in some other program we use the doStuff( ) function:

Circle c = new Circle();
Triangle t = new Triangle();
Line l = new Line();
doStuff(c);
doStuff(t);
doStuff(l);

The calls to doStuff( ) automatically work right, regardless of the exact type of the object.

This is actually a pretty amazing trick. Consider the line:

doStuff(c);

What’s happening here is that a Circle handle is being passed into a function that’s expecting a Shape handle. Since a Circle is a Shape it can be treated as one by doStuff( ). That is, any message that doStuff( ) can send to a Shape, a Circle can accept. So it is a completely safe and logical thing to do.

We call this process of treating a derived type as though it were its base type upcasting. The name cast is used in the sense of casting into a mold and the up comes from the way the inheritance diagram is typically arranged, with the base type at the top and the derived classes fanning out downward. Thus, casting to a base type is moving up the inheritance diagram: upcasting.

An object-oriented program contains some upcasting somewhere, because that’s how you decouple yourself from knowing about the exact type you’re working with. Look at the code in doStuff( ):

  s.erase();
  // ...
  s.draw();

Notice that it doesn’t say “If you’re a Circle, do this, if you’re a Square, do that, etc.” If you write that kind of code, which checks for all the possible types a Shape can actually be, it’s messy and you need to change it every time you add a new kind of Shape. Here, you just say “You’re a shape, I know you can erase( ) yourself, do it and take care of the details correctly.”

Dynamic binding

What’s amazing about the code in doStuff( ) is that somehow the right thing happens. Calling draw( ) for Circle causes different code to be executed than when calling draw( ) for a Square or a Line, but when the draw( ) message is sent to an anonymous Shape, the correct behavior occurs based on the actual type that the Shape handle happens to be connected to. This is amazing because when the Java compiler is compiling the code for doStuff( ), it cannot know exactly what types it is dealing with. So ordinarily, you’d expect it to end up calling the version of erase( ) for Shape, and draw( ) for Shape and not for the specific Circle, Square, or Line. And yet the right thing happens. Here’s how it works.

When you send a message to an object even though you don’t know what specific type it is, and the right thing happens, that’s called polymorphism. The process used by object-oriented programming languages to implement polymorphism is called dynamic binding . The compiler and run-time system handle the details; all you need to know is that it happens and more importantly how to design with it.

Abstract base classes and interfaces

Often in a design, you want the base class to present only an interface for its derived classes. That is, you don’t want anyone to actually create an object of the base class, only to upcast to it so that its interface can be used. This is accomplished by making that class abstract using the abstract keyword. If anyone tries to make an object of an abstract class, the compiler prevents them. This is a tool to enforce a particular design.

You can also use the abstract keyword to describe a method that hasn’t been implemented yet – as a stub indicating “here is an interface function for all types inherited from this class, but at this point I don’t have any implementation for it.” An abstract method may be created only inside an abstract class. When the class is inherited, that method must be implemented, or the inherited class becomes abstract as well. Creating an abstract method allows you to put a method in an interface without being forced to provide a possibly meaningless body of code for that method.


[5] This uses the Unified Notation , which will primarily be used in this book.



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