Serial Communication in Windows


Source code

This article is meant to give you a jump start on doing serial communication in Windows (NT family). The article will provide a class called CSerialCommHelper that you can use directly to do serial communication in your application. The class that is provided here with this article does uses overlapped IO. You do not need to know much about serial communication or overlapped IO for this article. However, you need to know some about the synchronization objects such as Events and some Windows APIs like WaitForSingleObject and WaitForMultipleObject, and so forth. Also, some basic understanding of Windows threads is required—such as thread creation and termination.


In order for your computer to do serial communication, the computer has to have a serial port. Most computers have at least one serial port, also known as a COM port (communication port), and are generally called COM1, COM2, and so on. Then there are the device drivers for the serial ports. If you think it over, all that you need to do in serial communication is either send data or receive data. In other words, you are doing input/output (IO) to the serial port. The same IO is done with disk-based files. Hence it is no surprise that the APIs for reading and writing to a file apply to serial ports as well. When you send data to the serial port, it's in terms of bytes but when it leaves the serial port it is in the form of bits. Similarly, when the data arrives at the serial port, it's in bit format and when you get data you get it in bytes.

Without any further discussion, let's get started.

Opening the COM Port

The first and the foremost step in doing a serial communication is to open the desired port. Let's say you have your device hooked to COM1; you can open the COM port using the following API:

HANDLE m_hCommPort = ::CreateFile( szPortName,
       GENERIC_READ|GENERIC_WRITE,  // access ( read and write)
       0,                           // (share) 0:cannot share the
                                    // COM port
       0,                           // security  (None)
       OPEN_EXISTING,               // creation : open_existing
       FILE_FLAG_OVERLAPPED,        // we want overlapped operation
       0                            // no templates file for
                                    // COM port...

The third, fifth, and seventh parameters have to be what they are in the above example, by law. We want to open the file (the COM port) in an overlapped fashion—that's why the sixth parameter is FILE_FLAG_OVERLAPPED. We will get into the details of overlapped IO a bit later. As you must have guessed from the name, the CreateFile() API can be used to create a file (disk-based); it also can be used to open an existing file.

To Windows, a serial port or a disk-based file both are IO devices. So, to open an existing file (serial port), all we need to know the name of the device (COM1) and pass the creation flags as OPEN_EXISTING.

If a COM port is opened successfully, the API returns the handle to the COM port just like a handle to a file. However, if the system could not open the COM port, it would return INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE. And you can get the reason by calling GetLastError(). One of the common errors when opening a COM port is that the COM port is already opened by some other application; in that case, you would get ERROR_ACCESS_DENIED (5). Similarly, if you mistakenly opened a COM port that does not exist , you would get ERROR_FILE_NOT_FOUND as the last error.

Note: Remember not to make any function calls (such as ASSERT) before calling GetLastError() or you would get 0.
After you have opened the COM port, all you need to do now is to start using it.

Reading and Writing

Now, when you have a COM port open, you may want to send some data to the connected device. For example, let's say you want to send "Hello" to the device (for example, another PC). When you want to send the data across the serial port, you need to write to the serial port just as you would write to a file. You would use following API:

iRet = WriteFile (m_hCommPort,data,dwSize,&dwBytesWritten ,&ov);

where data contains "Hello".

Let's say that, in response to your "Hello", the device sends you "Hi". So, you need to read the data. Again, you would use the following API:

abRet = ::ReadFile(m_hCommPort,szTmp ,sizeof(szTmp ),&dwBytesRead,&ovRead) ;

For now, do not try to understand everything. We will get to all this later. All this sounds very simple. Right?
Now, let's start digging into issues.

Issues with Serial Communication

Just now I said that, in response to your "Hello", the device may send you "Hi" back and you would like to read that. But the problem here is that you don't know when the device is going to respond. Or, will it ever respond? When should you start to read from the port? One option is that as soon as you made the call to WriteFile, you make a call to ReadFile. If no data is there, you need to make a read call again, later on. This leads to what is called polling. You keep polling the port for data. This model does not really seem to be a good one. It would be nice if somehow the system notified you when data has arrived and only then would you make a call to ReadFile. This is an event-driven approach and fits well into Windows programming. And the good news is that such a model is possible.

Another issue with the serial communication is that because it always occurs between two devices, the two devices need to agree on how they talk to each other. Each side needs to follow certain protocols to conduct business. Because it's the serial port that actually carries out the communication, we need to configure the serial port. There is an API available for that exact same purpose. Following is the API:

SetCommState ( HANDLE hFile, LPDCB lpDCB)

The first parameter is the handle to the COM port and the second parameter is what is called a device control block (DCB) . The DCB is a struct defined in winbase.h and has 28 data members. For example, we need to specify the baud rate at which the COM port operates; you need to set the BaudRate member of the struct. Baud rate is usually 9600 (bps). But the two devices have to use the same baud rate to conduct business. Similarly, if you want to use parity you need to set the Parity member of the struct. Again, the two devices have to use same parity. Some of the data members are reserved and have to be 0. I have found it easier to get the current DCB struct and then set those members that we are interested in changing. The following code gets the current DCB and sets some of the fields:

DCB dcb = {0};
dcb.DCBlength = sizeof(DCB);

if (!::GetCommState (m_hCommPort,&dcb))
  TRACE ( "CSerialCommHelper : Failed to Get Comm State Reason:
  return E_FAIL;

dcb.BaudRate  = dwBaudRate;
dcb.ByteSize  = byByteSize;
dcb.Parity    = byParity;
if ( byStopBits == 1 )
  dcb.StopBits  = ONESTOPBIT;
else if (byStopBits == 2 )
  dcb.StopBits  = TWOSTOPBITS;
  dcb.StopBits  = ONE5STOPBITS;

if (!::SetCommState (m_hCommPort,&dcb))
  TRACE ( "CSerialCommHelper : Failed to Set Comm State Reason:
  return E_FAIL;
TRACE ( "CSerialCommHelper : Current Settings, (Baud Rate %d;
  Parity %d; Byte Size %d; Stop Bits %d", dcb.BaudRate,

Most of the time you won't need to change the other fields of this structure. But if you need to change the structure, you need to be very careful about the fields because changing the fields will affect the behavior of the serial communication; hence, you should be very sure about what you want to change.

Event-Driven Approach

Let's return to our earlier problem with reading the data. If we do not want to keep polling the COM port for any data, we need to have some kind of event mechanism available. Fortunately, there is a way that you can ask the system to notify you when certain events happen. The API to use is:

SetCommMask( HANDLE hHandle,DWORD dwEvtMask)

The first parameter is the handle to the open COM port. The second parameter is used to specify a list of events that we are interested in.

The events that need to be specified in the mask depend upon the application needs. For simplicity, let's say that we are interested in getting notified whenever a character arrives at the serial port. We would need to specify EV_RXCHAR as the event mask. Similarly, if we are interested in knowing when all the data has been sent, we also need to specify the EV_TXEMPTY flag. So, our call would look like this:

SetCommMask( m_hCommPort,EV_TXTEMPTY|EV_RXCHAR);

The interesting thing here is that, although we told the system about the events of our interest, we did not, however, tell the system what to do when these events occur. How would the system let us know that a particular event occurred? An obvious thing seems to be a callback mechanism. But there is no such mechanism available. Here is when things get a little tricky. In order for the system to let us know about the communication event occurrence, we need to call WaitCommEvent This function waits for the events specified in SetCommMask. But if you think a little more, it sounds like we are turning a notification mechanism back to a polling mechanism. Actually, it's even worse that than. WaitCommEvent blocks until an event occurs. So what's the use of WaitCommEvent? Well, the answer lies in overlapped IO.

If you look at the WaitCommEvent signature, it looks like this:


The third parameter is the key here.

Think of overlapped IO as asynchronous IO. Whenever a function makes a call and specifies the overlapped IO structure, it means that it is trying to do the current operation but, if you are not able to complete it immediately, let me know when you are done with this IO. The way the system lets you know about the completion is by setting a kernel event object that is part of the lpOverlapped structure. So, all you do is spawn a thread and make the thread wait for that event object using one of the WaitForSingleObject() APIs.

Let's look at the overlapped structure:

typedef struct _OVERLAPPED {
DWORD Internal;
DWORD InternalHigh;
DWORD Offset;
DWORD OffsetHigh;
HANDLE hEvent;

The last parameter is the event handle that you need to create. This event is generally a manual reset event. When you make a call like WaitCommEvent(), passing the overlapped structure as the last parameter, and the system could not complete the call—meaning it did not see any characters at the port—it would return immediately but would return FALSE. If you now make a call to GetLastError(), you would get ERROR_IO_PENDING; this means that the call has been accepted but no characters have yet arrived at the COM port. Also it means that whenever the characters arrive, the system will set the hEvent of the overlapped structure that you passed in. So, if your thread would wait for a single object on hEvent and you pass INFINITE, whenever your Wait function returns WAIT_OBJECT_0, it means that some character has arrived or all the data in the output buffer has been sent.

In our current case, we are interested in more than one event; we would need to check what event we did get by making a call to GetCommMask and checking the dword against each event. The following pseudo code will explain it.

You can read the data from the COM port, reset the event, and make the call to WaitCommEvent again, and so on.

unsigned __stdcall CSerialCommHelper::ThreadFn(void*pvParam)
  ov.hEvent = CreateEvent( 0,true,0,0);
  HANDLE arHandles[2];
  arHandles[0] = apThis->m_hThreadTerm;

  DWORD dwWait;
  while (  abContinue )

    BOOL abRet = ::WaitCommEvent(apThis->m_hCommPort,
        &dwEventMask, &ov) ;
    if ( !abRet )

      ASSERT( GetLastError () == ERROR_IO_PENDING);

    arHandles[1] = ov.hEvent ;

    dwWait = WaitForMultipleObjects (2,arHandles,FALSE,INFINITE);
    switch ( dwWait )
    case WAIT_OBJECT_0:
    case WAIT_OBJECT_0 + 1:
        DWORD dwMask;
        if (GetCommMask(apThis->m_hCommPort,&dwMask) )
          if ( dwMask & EV_TXEMPTY )
          TRACE("Data sent");
          ResetEvent ( ov.hEvent );
          //read data here and reset ov.hEvent
    }     //switch
  }       //while
return 0;

If you understood the above code, you will understand this entire article and the source code provided. The above piece of code is simple; it uses the overlapped IO method to do its job.

After we receive the indication that the data has arrived, we need to read the data. The important thing to note here is that the when data arrives at the serial port, it is copied over to the system buffer. The data is removed from the system buffer only when you have read the data using an API such as ReadFile. Like any buffer, the system buffer has a limited size. So if you do not read the data from the buffers quickly enough, the system buffers can become full if more data is arriving. What happens to further data depends upon the configuration that you have set in the device configuration block (in a call to SetCommState). Usually, the applications do some kind of handshaking at the application level but you can also make configurations such that the COM port does not accept any further data upon buffer-full events. But all that is beyond the scope of this discussion. If possible, it's always better to have applications themselves implementing some kind of handshaking—like not sending the next block of data until you get an okay for the first block. Generally this kind of handshaking is implemented using some sort of ACK/NAK and ENQ protocol.

In order for us to read data, we need to use the ReadFile() API. The ReadFile API has to specify how much data to read. Let's say we are monitoring character arrivals and 10 characters arrive at the port. As soon as the first character arrives at the port the system will set the overlapped structure's event object and our WaitSingleObject will return. Next we would need to read the data. So how much data should we read? Should we read 1 byte or 10 bytes? That is a good question. The way it works is as follows (Note: This is not documented anywhere but this is what I have found by research on Win2K and NT4.0):

When one (or more) characters arrive at the port, the event object associated with the overlapped structure is set once. Now let's say that you made a call to read and you read 1 character. After reading 1 character, you would finally Reset the overlapped structure's event object. Now you would go back to the WaitCommEvent, but it would return false because no "new" character has arrived. So you will not be able to read any more characters. Now when another character arrives, the system will set the overlapped event and you would read one more character, but this time it will be the character that had arrived earlier and you never read. This clearly is a problem.

So what is the solution? The easiest solution is that as soon as you get the event object indicating the arrival of a character, you should read all the characters that are present in the port. (If you are familiar with the Win API MsgWaitForMultipleObjects, you can draw a analogy here.)

So again the question remains of how many characters to read. The answer is read all the characters in a loop using ReadFile().

Here is the pseudo code to do so:


  WaitCommEvent(m_hCommPort,&dwEventMask, &ov) ;
  if ( WaitForSingleObject(ov.hEvent,INFINITE) == WAIT_OBJECT_0)
    char szBuf[100];
      ReadFile( hPort,szBuf,sizeof(szBuf),&dwBytesRead,&ov);
    }while (dwBytesRead > 0 );

The ReadFile API has the following signature:

BOOL ReadFile( HANDLE hFile,        // handle to file
     LPVOID lpBuffer,               // data buffer
     DWORD nNumberOfBytesToRead,    // number of bytes to read
     LPDWORD lpNumberOfBytesRead,   // number of bytes read
     LPOVERLAPPED lpOverlapped      // overlapped buffer );

The first parameter is, as usual, the COM port; the last parameter is the overlapped structure. Again, we need to create a manual reset event and pass the overlapped structure to the ReadFile function. Again, if you issue a read for, say, 10 bytes and there is no data available, ReadFile will return FALSE and GetLastError() will return ERROR_IO_PENDING; the system will set the overlapped event when the overlapped operation (read) completes.

As you can see, ReadFile returns dwBytesRead which, it is clear, returns the number of bytes read. If there are no bytes remaining, the dwBytesRead will return 0. Let's say there are 11 bytes that have arrived and you read 10 characters in the first go in the while loop. In the first go, 10 characters will be returned in dwBytesRead. In the second go with the while loop, the dwBytesRead will return 1. Now in the third go, the dwBytesRead will return 0 and you will break out of the while loop. This allows you to read all the data. In this approach, if you noticed, we never really took advantage of the overlapped structure that we passed to the ReadFile function, but we still need to pass it because we opened the COM port in an Overlapped manner.

And, finally, when you want to send data to another device, you need to call WriteFile. WriteFile is not even worth discussing.

There is one more thing that needs to be taken into account before we move on and that is communication timeouts. It's important to set the timeout to proper values for things to work. The API to do so is:

SetCommTimeouts ( HANDLE hCommPort, LPCOMMTIMEOUTS lpCommTimeOuts)

COMTIMEOUTS is a structure with following members:

typedef struct _COMMTIMEOUTS {
  DWORD ReadIntervalTimeout;
  DWORD ReadTotalTimeoutMultiplier;
  DWORD ReadTotalTimeoutConstant;
  DWORD WriteTotalTimeoutMultiplier;
  DWORD WriteTotalTimeoutConstant;

For a description of all these fields, consult the MSDN documentation. But one thing I want to point out is this:

"...A value of MAXDWORD, combined with zero values for both the ReadTotalTimeoutConstant and ReadTotalTimeoutMultiplier members, specifies that the read operation is to return immediately with the characters that have already been received, even if no characters have been received..."

This is exactly what we want. We do NOT want ReadFile to get stuck if there is no data available as we well know with the WaitCommEvent() API.

and also "...A value of zero for both the WriteTotalTimeoutMultiplier and WriteTotalTimeoutConstant members indicates that total time-outs are not used for write operations..." is what we want. In short we need to do this:

  COMMTIMEOUTS timeouts;
    timeouts.ReadIntervalTimeout                = MAXDWORD;
    timeouts.ReadTotalTimeoutMultiplier   = 0;
    timeouts.ReadTotalTimeoutConstant     = 0;
    timeouts.WriteTotalTimeoutMultiplier  = 0;
    timeouts.WriteTotalTimeoutConstant    = 0;

    if (!SetCommTimeouts(m_hCommPort, &timeouts))
      TRACE ( "CSerialCommHelper :  Error setting time-outs.
      return E_FAIL;

Now we have discussed almost everything that needs to be discussed for the sake of this article.

Putting It All Together

All this I have to put together in a form of two classes:

  • The main class is CSerialCommHelper—the main class that performs all the communication.
  • The helper class called CSerialBuffer; it is an internal buffer used by the CSerialCommHelper.

Here is the main API of the CSerialCommHelper:

inline bool IsInputAvailable()
inline bool IsConnection() {return m_abIsConnected ;}
inline void SetDataReadEvent() { SetEvent ( m_hDataRx ); }
HRESULT Read_N (std::string& data,long alCount,long alTimeOut);
HRESULT Read_Upto (std::string& data,char chTerminator ,long*
    alCount,long alTimeOut);
HRESULT ReadAvailable(std::string& data);
HRESULT Write (const char* data,DWORD dwSize);
HRESULT Init(std::string szPortName, DWORD dwBaudRate,BYTE
    byParity,BYTE byStopBits,BYTE byByteSize);
HRESULT Start();

and the interface for CSerialBuffer is:

inline void LockBuffer(); 
inline void UnLockBuffer();
void AddData( char ch ) ;
void AddData( std::string& szData ) ;
void AddData( std::string& szData,int iLen ) ;
void AddData( char *strData,int iLen ) ;
std::string GetData() ;
void Flush();
long Read_N( std::string &szData,long alCount,HANDLE&
bool Read_Upto( std::string &szData,char chTerm,long
    &alBytesRead ,HANDLE& hEventToReset);
bool Read_Available( std::string &szData,HANDLE &
inline long GetSize() ;
inline bool IsEmpty() ;

Here is the logic and working behind the classes:

First of all, let me show you how to use the class. In your application, create an object of CSerialCommHelper, like this:

CSerialCommHelper m_theCommPort;

Call m_theCommPort.Init(), passing in the necessary information. If you want, you can use the default values.

Next, call m_theCommPort.Start().

If you want to get notification about when some data is available, you can get the kernel event object to wait by calling m_theCommPort.GetWaitForEvent().

What CSerialCommHelper does is that, on a call to Init(), it opens the specified COM port and also starts a thread. The thread starts "listening" for any incoming data and, after the data has been received, it reads all the data into a local buffer which is of type CSerialBuffer. After it's done reading all the data, it sets the event in case you want to get the notification. Now you have three options:

  • Read all the data by calling ReadAvailable(), which reads all the data.
  • Read up to some character by calling Read_Upto and passing the character up to which you want to read.
  • Read N characters by calling Read_N, passing the number to be read.

There is another thing that you need to pay attention to. If you want to read 10 characters but there are only 5 characters in the local buffer, read_N makes a blocking call and waits for the timeout passed as the last parameter. The same is true for Read_Upto.

One more thing. If there are 10 characters in the local buffer but you made a call to Read_N() for 5 characters, the first 5 characters will be returned to you. If you make the next call Read_N() for 5 characters again, it would return the next 5 characters.

That's all there is to it.

If you think I have left out something, please feel free to e-mail me at


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