A Simple, Flicker-Free 2D Animation Demo

Environment: VC6

This project generates a simple, flicker-free 2D animation demo. It loads two pictures—a background (big one) and a foreground (small one). The user can select and move the small picture over the big one without any flickering. Resizing the window does not produce any flickering of its contents, either. The idea is very simple and it could be used for different purposes. It could be implemented in different programming languages as well. I used it with Borland C++ Builder to create a multimedia picture slider for a catalogue program and Delphi to create a program for creating moving and resizing dialog box controls. Of course, it is better there to use "Canvas" rather than "Device context," but the principle is the same.

All the interesting code is located in xdrawView.h and xdrawView.cpp. It creates two memory dc and three bitmap objects:

  • CDC* m_PicDC;
  • CDC* m_CanvasDC;
  • CBitmap* m_BkgBitmap;
  • CBitmap* m_Bitmap;
  • CBitmap* m_CanvasBitmap;

The coordinates and size of the foreground picture on the screen are in the following code:

struct PICTURE
{
  CPoint topleft;       // top-left corner of the pic.
  int height, width;    // pic. width, height
};
PICTURE m_picture;

Background picture width and height:

int m_hBkg, m_wBkg;

When a user moves the foreground picture over the background one, the program calculates a "dirty rectangle." The "dirty rectangle" combines the new and old position of the foreground picture and sends it to be invalidated. The OnDraw() function is doing this flicker-free invalidation.

//---------------------------------------------------------------
// Draws a flicker-free content of the window—when requested.
//---------------------------------------------------------------
void CXdrawView::OnDraw(CDC* pDC)
{
// CXdrawDoc* pDoc = GetDocument();
// ASSERT_VALID(pDoc);
  // TODO: add draw code for native data here

  CBitmap* pOldBmp1;
  CBitmap* pOldBmp2;
  CRect cr;
  //selects canvas
  pOldBmp1 = m_CanvasDC->SelectObject(m_CanvasBitmap);
  //selects background, blits into canvas
  pOldBmp2 = m_PicDC->SelectObject(m_BkgBitmap);
  m_CanvasDC->BitBlt(0, 0, m_wBkg, m_hBkg, m_PicDC, 0, 0, SRCCOPY);
  //selects small pic, blits into canvas
  m_PicDC->SelectObject(m_Bitmap);
  m_CanvasDC->BitBlt(m_picture.topleft.x,
    m_picture.topleft.y,
    m_picture.width,
    m_picture.height,
    m_PicDC,
    0, 0, SRCCOPY);
  //blits canvas on screen. Well, only part of it—the
  // "dirty rectangle" part.
  pDC->GetClipBox(cr);
  pDC->BitBlt(cr.left, cr.top, cr.right, cr.bottom, m_CanvasDC,
                 cr.left, cr.top, SRCCOPY);
  //deselects all the bitmaps
  m_CanvasDC->SelectObject(pOldBmp1);
  m_PicDC->SelectObject(pOldBmp2);
}

//---------------------------------------------------------------
// if user clicks in the small picture, he captures this event
// for consecutive handling.
//---------------------------------------------------------------
void CXdrawView::OnLButtonDown(UINT nFlags, CPoint point)
{
  CRect PicRc(m_picture.topleft,
    CPoint(m_picture.topleft.x + m_picture.width,
    m_picture.topleft.y + m_picture.height));
  if (PicRc.PtInRect(point))
  {
    SetCapture();
    m_Btndown = true;
    m_offs = point - m_picture.topleft;
    ::SetCursor(::LoadCursor(NULL, IDC_CROSS));
  }
}

//---------------------------------------------------------------
// Release user input.
//---------------------------------------------------------------
void CXdrawView::OnLButtonUp(UINT nFlags, CPoint point) 
{
  ::ReleaseCapture();
  m_Btndown = false;
}

//---------------------------------------------------------------
// if we have mouse down captured, then calculate a dirty rect
// that combines the old and new position of the small picture
// and invalidates it
//---------------------------------------------------------------
void CXdrawView::OnMouseMove(UINT nFlags, CPoint point)
{
  if (m_Btndown)
  {
    CRect DirtyRc = CalcDirtyRect(m_picture.width,
      m_picture.height,
      m_picture.topleft,
      point - m_offs);
    m_picture.topleft = point - m_offs;
    InvalidateRect(DirtyRc, false);
  }


}

//---------------------------------------------------------------
// calculates dirty rect. that combines 2 rect., expresing old
// and new position of the small picture.
//---------------------------------------------------------------
CRect CXdrawView::CalcDirtyRect(int pic_w, int pic_h,
                                CPoint p1, CPoint p2)
{
  CSize PicSize(pic_w,pic_h);
  CRect r1(p1,PicSize);
  CRect r2(p2,PicSize);

  return r1 | r2;
}

//---------------------------------------------------------------
// Try commenting my code and uncommenting the standard one,
// then try to resize the app. window to see the diference.
//---------------------------------------------------------------
BOOL CXdrawView::OnEraseBkgnd(CDC* pDC) 
{
  return false;
// return CView::OnEraseBkgnd(pDC);
// the original code
}

Downloads

Download demo project - 150 Kb
Download source - 82 Kb


Comments

  • My Game

    Posted by Legacy on 11/04/2002 12:00am

    Originally posted by: Tanatos

    I haven`t seen your sources yet, but I hope they`ll help me out with the problem I faced assembling my first GDI game. It flickers a lot when my game receives constant input from keyboard.
    P.S.
    I avoided the WM_PAINT already, but still the frame rate is low for the game...

    Reply
Leave a Comment
  • Your email address will not be published. All fields are required.

Top White Papers and Webcasts

  • Savvy enterprises are discovering that the cloud holds the power to transform IT processes and support business objectives. IT departments can use the cloud to redefine the continuum of development and operations—a process that is becoming known as DevOps. Download the Executive Brief DevOps: Why IT Operations Managers Should Care About the Cloud—prepared by Frost & Sullivan and sponsored by IBM—to learn how IBM SmartCloud Application services provide a robust platform that streamlines …

  • Java developers know that testing code changes can be a huge pain, and waiting for an application to redeploy after a code fix can take an eternity. Wouldn't it be great if you could see your code changes immediately, fine-tune, debug, explore and deploy code without waiting for ages? In this white paper, find out how that's possible with a Java plugin that drastically changes the way you develop, test and run Java applications. Discover the advantages of this plugin, and the changes you can expect to see …

Most Popular Programming Stories

More for Developers

Latest Developer Headlines

RSS Feeds